Hand each pair: » The Investigating Reproductive Strategies worksheet (page S-1) » 2 organism descriptions - one for an organism that reproduces sexually and one for an organism that reproduces either asexually or using both strategies - (see chart below). Image credit: “Mike” Michael L. BairdÂ https://www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/5397483362. On the other hand, there are some animals, which become reproductively active only during the favourable seasons in their reproductive phase; such animals are called seasonal breeders, e.g., dog, birds, frog, lizard, etc. Faculty of Science. In this situation, males and females are often not interacting with each other as individuals, but massed together so that all sperm and all eggs are in the same location. Animal Behavior/Reproductive Strategies in Fish. Cougar litters range from one to six but two is the typical amount. Internal fertilization occurs most often in land-based animals, although some aquatic animals also use this method. The reproductive strategy of species M is comparable to large mammals (with one or two offspring), whereas the strategy of species D is more ratite-like (e.g., ostrich with ten offspring) or dinosaur-like, respectively (megaloolithid clutch size ∼9–25 eggs, , –). Reproductive Strategies A. Courtship B. The uncertainty of not knowing “who’s the daddy” selects for males to avoid infanticide, as they may inadvertently kill their own offspring. SUBJECT. 1. In order to understand how different species see the world, it is important to understand how the eye works. Any situation where one gender (or both genders) select specific individuals to mate with will result in a phenomenon called sexual selection. The polygamous system includes two sub-types: polgynous and polyandrous systems. The most impressive eyes in the animal... Vital viewing: 6 must-watch wildlife and nature documentaries, Edge effects and habitat fragmentation: the main causes of species extinction. 3. Faculty. In addition to various reproductive strategies, organisms differ in their survivorship strategies. Start studying Animal reproductive strategies.  [Mr. Matt Perrier, Dalebanks Angus – Reproductive technologies that have changed the ranch. Specifically amongst polygynyc males, there is. Females tend to choose males that are easy to spot. The table below summarizes some of the differences between r … Which one are you? The female benefits by mating with a genetically fit male at the cost of having no male help care for the offspring. Printed on Heavyweight 240gsm matt fine art stock. Coevolution between harmful male genitalia and female resistance in seed beetles. In some species, including some fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other invertebrates, there are environmental (water temperature, length of daylight) or biological (pheromones) cues that cause males and females to release gametes at the same time. Zebrafinches, like many songbirds, exhibit a socially monogamous mating system. To do so, they analyse the parental care that the male can provide and they favour males with attributes that indicate genetic quality. Reproductive strategies in males and females. Typical K-selected organisms are elephants, and humans. Their reproductive strategy is to grow slowly, live close to the carrying capacity of their habitat and produce a few progeny each with a high probability of survival. Because females of most sexually reproducing species are “choosy,” females are often the gender that sexually selects traits in males. (Image credit: Jojo Cruzado – stalk eyed fly, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39304119). How do animals see? Males often engage in direct male competition over potential mating partners. In this review, Tong et al. Bring a taste of the wild home with you, as each animal presents their own unique character in this rather amusing collection of Zoo Portrait cushions. Both species are iteroparous. used to refer to the way an animal mates and/or raises offspring 3. Prairie vole. Getting the sperm and egg together requires that the gametes be released at the same time and in the same location to increase the likelihood of fertilization (otherwise all those gametes are wasted!) Monogamy, polygamy and promiscuity. of Florida – Enhancing long-term growth and reproduction of heifers. Older, wiser ferns control other ferns' sex lives in the interest of maintaining diversity. Harem mating structures are a type of polygynous system where certain males dominate mating while controlling a territory with resources. Populations of these organisms increase exponentially via asexual reproductive strategies to take full advantage of the rich supply resources. Such statements are, with some nuances, valid definitions of a “living being” and they all share a common denominator: they mention the reproductive function as a characteristic. One question is why females should “care” about these showy male traits. As a result of this competition, sexual selection often leads to sexual dimorphism, or distinct differences in size or appearance between males and females. In other words, eggs are “expensive” and sperm are “cheap.” Thus, generally a female maximizes her reproductive success by mating with the “best” male she can, while generally a male maximizes his reproductive success by mating with as many females as possible. Polygamy refers to either one male mating with multiple females or one female mates with many males. When one male mating with multiple females, called polygyny (“many females”), the female takes responsibility for most of the parental care as the single male is not capable of providing care to that many offspring. The current review brings together theoretical and empirical work on plants and animals, at both micro- and macro-evolutionary scales, focusing on one of the most universal evolutionary tradeoffs. Sexual dimorphism can lead to specific behaviors in males that increase their reproductive success. The objective of such behaviour in individuals is to pass on their genes to the next generation, ensuring their viability. Xtra Gr 12 Life Sciences: In this lesson on Strategies for Reproduction we focus on: External and internal fertilisatin, ovipary, ovoviviparty and vivipary, amniotic egg, precocial and … This system is predominant amongst birds (over 90%), although some intercourse with other mates is also common. In some animals, such as the prairie vole, these associations can last much longer, even a lifetime. Fertilized eggs are laid outside the female’s body and develop there, and the embryo receives nourishment from the yolk that is a part of the egg. Divide students into pairs. 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